In the Czech Republic there are two “academic-pedagogical degrees” - “docent” and “profesor”. These correspond with the posts of Associate Professor and Full Professor respectively, and are awarded not only for academic achievements, but also on the basis of the applicant’s teaching activities. The degree “docent” is awarded by the Rector on the basis of a procedure known as habilitation. The degree “profesor” is awarded by the President of the Czech Republic on the basis of a nomination. Additionally there are three purely academic degrees - Honorary Doctorate (doctor honoris causa), Emeritus Professor, and Visiting Professor. Charles University also awards the honorary posthumous degrees “docent in memoriam” and “profesor in memoriam”.
According to Article 41 of the Constitution of Charles University, the degree Emeritus Professor may be awarded to a Professor who has retired from his/her employment at the University, or who is currently retired but was formerly employed by the University. Emeritus Professors are appointed by the Rector upon the Dean’s proposal after the Research Board of the relevant faculty has expressed its opinion. “Emeritus Professor of Charles University” is an honorary degree which does not create membership in the Academic Community of the University. An Emeritus Professor is entitled to participate in scholarly research at the University and to use its equipment and information technologies for that purpose; the appointment as Emeritus Professor does not create any proprietary rights. An Emeritus Professor has the right to be given the floor at assemblies of members of the Academic Community.
Teachers from universities outside the Czech Republic whose position corresponds with the position of the Czech “docent” or “profesor” (Associate Professor and Full Professor respectively) may, during their stay at the University, use the working title “Visiting Professor of Charles University” following a decision by the Rector issued on the basis of a proposal from the Research Board of the relevant faculty or institute. The award of this title is governed by Article 40 of the Constitution of Charles University. Visiting Professors have the same rights and duties as other members of the Academic Community, with the exception of the right to vote for candidates to the Academic Senates and to be elected to the Academic Senates.
According to Article 43 of the Constitution of Charles University, a member of academic staff who achieved outstanding results in teaching and scholarly work during his/her life and who died in connection with the fulfilment of his/her professional duties may be appointed Professor in Memoriam (“profesor in memoriam”). Professors in Memoriam are appointed by the Rector upon a proposal by the faculty Research Board after the Research Board of the University has expressed its opinion. This degree may also be awarded in other cases worthy of special consideration. “Professor in Memoriam of Charles University”(“profesor in memoriam Univerzity Karlovy”) is an honorary degree which does not create any proprietary rights. This degree has not been awarded during the past five years.